Correlatives

Table of Correlatives

interrogative
(which)
demonstrative
(this)
demonstrative
(that)
unspecified
(some, certain)
universal
(every, each)
negative
(no, none)
alternative
(other, different, else)
identical
(same)
any noun ke...
which...
hin...
this...
den...
that...
ban...
some...
certain...
moy...
every...
each...
nil...
no...
none of...
alo...
another...
a different...
sama...
(the) same...
thing

to - it
keto
what
which one
hinto
this (thing),
this one
dento
that (thing),
that one
banto
something
moyto
everything
nilto
nothing
none
aloto
something else
samato
the same thing
animate being

te -
s/he or any life form
kete
who
which one
hinte
this one
dente
that one
bante
somebody
moyte
everybody
nilte
nobody
alote
somebody else
samate
the same person
possession

-su -
possessive suffix
kesu
whose
hinsu
this one’s
densu
that one’s
bansu
somebody’s
moysu
everybody’s
nilsu
nobody’s
alosu
somebody else’s
samasu
the same person's
kind, way

-pul -
adj/adv suffix
kepul
like what; how
(in what way)
hinpul
like this;
this way
denpul
like that;
that way
banpul
some kind of;
in some way
moypul
every kind of;
in every way
nilpul
no kind of;
in no way
alopul
a different kind of;
in a different way
samapul
the same kind of;
in the same way
degree

-mo -
adv suffix
kemo
how
(to what degree)
hinmo
to this degree
yay, yea
denmo
to that degree
as, so, such
banmo
to a certain degree, somewhat
moymo
to every degree
nilmo
to no degree
alomo
to a different degree
samamo
to the same degree
quantity, amount

kwanti -
quantity
amount
kekwanti
how much
hinkwanti
this much
denkwanti
that much
bankwanti
some amount of
moykwanti
the entire
amount of
nilkwanti
no amount of,
none
alokwanti
a different
amount of
samakwanti
the same
amount of
number

numer -
number
kenumer
how many
hinnumer
this many
dennumer
that many
bannumer
some number of
moynumer
all of the
nilnumer
none of the
alonumer
a different
number of
samanumer
the same
number of
location

loka -
place
keloka
where
hinloka
here
denloka
there
banloka
somewhere
moyloka
everywhere
nilloka
nowhere
aloloka
elsewhere
samaloka
in the same place
time

watu -
time
kewatu
when
hinwatu
now
denwatu
then
banwatu
sometime
moywatu
always
nilwatu
never
alowatu
at a different time
samawatu
at the same time
reason
(cause or purpose)


seba -
reason
keseba
why, how come
hinseba
for this reason
denseba
for that reason
banseba
for some reason
moyseba
for every reason
nilseba
for no reason
aloseba
for a different reason
samaseba
for the same reason
way, manner

maner -
way, manner
kemaner
how (done by
what manner)
hinmaner
like this, like so,
by this manner
denmaner
like that, like so,
by that manner
banmaner
somehow,
by some manner
moymaner
by every manner
nilmeto
by no manner
alometo
by another manner
samameto
by the same manner
emphatic

he -
any, -ever
he keto
whatever
he hinto
any of these
whichever
he dento
any of those
whichever
he banto
anything
he moyto
everything
and anything
he nilto
not any,
not a single one
he aloto
any other
he samato
the same exact thing

Determiner Correlatives

The correlatives words ke, hin, den, ban, moy, nil, alo and sama must always be followed by a noun (whether modified with adjectives or not) or by a pronoun. They should never stand alone since by omitting the (pro)noun the correlative could potentially be mistaken to refer to the noun/verb that follows it. In the absence of a specified noun, the pronouns te or to mark the end of the noun phrase. See Noun Phrases.

Compare the following sentences:

Hinto bono nasacu.
This (thing) smells good.

In the sentence above, -to marks the end of the noun phrase.

Hin bono nasacu... memorigi mi cel misu femdoste.
This good smell... reminds me of my girlfriend.

In the sentence above, nasacu marks the end of the noun phrase.

kekwanti, kenumer

Likewise, kekwanti (what quantity of) and kenumer (what number of) must also always be followed by a noun or otherwise te or to when a noun is understood and not specified.

kenumer bono lala - how many good songs
vs.
Kenumer te bono lala?
How many (of them) sing well?

Mi le kari dua kilogramo di risi. Yu le kari kekwanti to?
I bought two kilos of rice. How much did you buy?

Obligatory cel

The preposition cel is obligatory with loka correlatives when movement is involved.

cel keloka - where (to)
cel hinloka - here (hither)
cel denloka - there (thither)
etc.

Ke vs Ku- Correlatives

In many languages, the so-called questions words (who, where, when, etc.) are used not only to form questions but have multiple other functions. In Globasa, instead of using one set of words for all functions there are two sets (ke and ku- correlatives) with a specific division of labor between them.

The difference between ke and ku- correlatives is as follows.

Correlatives with ke are used not only in direct and indirect questions but also in statements containing a clause (a sentence within a sentence) that functions in the place of a noun phrase.

The correlative prefix ku- and all its derivatives (kute, kuto, kusu, kumo, kupul, kukwanti, kunumer, kuloka, kuwatu, kuseba and kumeto) are used only in subordinate clauses. Subordinate clauses are clauses that provide additional information to the core of the sentence.

The examples below are meant to illustrate the explanation above.

Example sentences with ke correlatives are divided into the following two functions:

Function (1): ke- correlative as direct and indirect question word
Function (2): ke- correlative within clause in place of noun phrase (clause underlined)

Example sentences with ku- correlatives have their subordinate clauses in italics.

Note: Ke- questions retain the word order of their counterpart statements.

Ke, Kete, Keto vs. Kute, Kuto

ke, kete and keto - which, who(m) and what

Function (1): Direct and indirect questions

Kete is yusu alimyen?
Who is your teacher?

Mi wole na jixi kete is yusu alimyen.
I want to know who your teacher is.

Te wole na yam keto?
What does he want to eat?

Mi le wanji el keto te wole na yam.
I forgot what he wants to eat.

Note: The direct object marker el is required to mark the direct object when moved to the start of the clause.

Te le gibe pesa tas ke doste?
Which friend did she give the money to?

Te le no loga tas ke doste te le gibe pesa.
She didn't say which friend she gave the money to.

Function (2): Within clause in place of noun phrase

Mi jixi kete lubi yu.
I know who loves you.

Mi jixi el kete yu lubi.
I know whom you love.

Mi suki el keto yu hare.
I like what you have.

kute and kuto - who(m)/that and which/that

The relative pronouns kute and kuto appear in subordinate clauses, providing additional information about nouns in a sentence.

Te is femixu kute lubi mi.
She is the woman who loves me.

Te is femixu el kute mi lubi.
She is the woman that (or: whom) I love.

Kamisa el kuto mi suki blue.
or: To blue, kamisa el kuto mi suki.
The shirt (that) I like is blue. or It's blue, the shirt (that) I like.

Note: As seen in the last example, when the relative clause is part of the subject, the sentence may be reworded in order to place the core of the sentence first and move the relative clause to the end of the sentence. This helps to make the sentence easier to process.

kesu vs kusu

kesu - whose

Function (1): Direct and indirect questions

Hinto is kesu kursi?
Whose chair is this?

Mi wole na jixi kesu kursi hinto is.
I want to know whose chair this is.

Function (2): Within clause in place of noun phrase

Mi jixi kesu kitabu perya mesa.
I know whose book is on the table.

Mi le oko el kesu to yu le cori.
I saw whose you stole.

Note: Since kesu is an adjective it requires a pronoun (to in the example sentence above) at the end of the noun phrase if the noun is understood.

kusu - whose

The relative possessive adjective kusu appears in subordinate clauses.

Manyen kusu gami Globasa is misu doste.
or: Te is misu doste, manyen kusu gami Globasa.
The guy whose spouse speaks Globasa is my friend.
or: He is my friend, the guy whose spouse speaks Globasa.

kepul vs kupul

kepul - like what or what kind of (with nouns); how (with verbs)

Function (1): Direct and indirect questions (what kind of?; how?)

Kitabu le kepul?
What was the book like? or How was the book?

Yu suki kepul bwaw?
What kind of dog do you like?

Te kepul lala?
How does she sing?

Te le swal kepul yu.
She asked how you were.

Function (2): Within clause in place of noun phrase (the kind/way in question; the kind/way which)

Mi jixi kepul insan yu is.
I know what kind of person you are.

kupul - like, "kind-wise" as

Mi hazuni kupul yu.
I am sad like you.

Mi no abil na lala kupul yu.
I can't sing like you.

(Sama) kupul mi, pia te hare tiga bete.
Like me, she too has three children.

Mi salom yu kupul misu sodar.
I greet you as my brother.

kemo vs kumo

kemo - how (degree)

Function (1): Direct and indirect questions (to what degree?)

Yu kemo lawo?
How old are you?

Yu abil pawbu kemo velosi?
How fast can you run?

Am loga tas mi kemo lungo filme.
Tell me how long the movie is.

Function (2): Within clause in place of noun phrase (the degree in question; the degree to which)

Mi jixi kemo pilodo yu.
I know how tired you are.

kumo - "degree-wise" as

Hin baytu (denmo) dayo kumo misu to.
This house as big as mine.

kekwanti, kenumer vs kukwanti, kunumer

kekwanti, kenumer - how much, how many

Function (1): Direct and indirect questions (what quantity of; what number of)

Yu wole kekwanti risi?
How much rice do you want?

Yu hare kenumer bete?
How many children do you have?

Mi jixiwol el kenumer bete yu hare.
I wonder how many children you have.

Function (2): Within clause in place of noun phrase (the quantity of... which; the number of... which)

Mi le oko el kekwanti risi yu le kari.
I saw how much rice you bought.

kukwanti, kunumer - "quantity-wise" as; "number-wise" as

Mi hare (denkwanti) bete kukwanti misu gami.
I have as many children as my spouse.

keloka vs kuloka

keloka - where

Function (1): Direct and indirect questions (at what place?)

Yu ogar keloka?
Where do you live?

Am swal tas te keloka te ogar.
Ask her where he lives.

Function (2): Within clause in place of noun phrase (the place in question; the place at which)

Dento is keloka.
That is where.

Mi jixi keloka te ogar.
I know where he lives.

kuloka - where (at the place at which)

Mi ogar kuloka hay termo.
I live where it's warm.

kewatu vs kuwatu

kewatu - when

Function (1): Direct and indirect questions (at what time?)

Te xa preata kewatu?
When will he arrive?

Mi jixiwol kewatu te xa preata.
I wonder when he will arrive.

Function (2): Within clause in place of noun phrase (the time in question; the time at which)

Dento is kewatu te xa preata.
That is when he will arrive.

Mi jixi kewatu te xa preata.
I know when he will arrive.

kuwatu - when (at the time at which)

Te xa preata kuwatu yam jumbi.
He will arrive when the meal is ready.

Am gibe tas te hin suratu kuwatu te xa preata.
Give him this letter when he arrives.

keseba vs kuseba

keseba - why

Function (1): Direct and indirect questions (for what reason?)

Yu le no idi cel parti keseba?
Why didn't you go to the party?

Mi le swal tas te keseba te le no idi cel parti.
I asked her why she didn't go to the party.

Function (2): Within clause in place of noun phrase (the reason in question; the reason for which)

Hinto is keseba.
This is why.

Mi jixi keseba yu le no idi.
I know why you didn't go.

kuseba - for the reason for which

Mi le no idi cel parti kuseba yu idi.
I didn't go to the party for the reason for which you went.

kemaner vs kumaner

kemaner - how (done how)

Function (1): Direct and indirect questions (done in what manner?)

Yu le xuli mobil kemaner?
How did you fix the car?

Mi jixiwol kemaner yu le xuli mobil.
I wonder how you fixed the car.

Function (2): Within clause in place of noun phrase (the manner in question; the manner in which)

Mi jixi kemaner yu le xuli mobil.
I know how you fixed the car.

kumaner - how, like (done in the manner in which)

Mi le xuli mobil kumaner yu le alim tas mi.
I fixed the car how/like you taught me.

Kumaner mi le loga...
Like I said...

daydenmo

The word daydenmo is an affixed word composed of day- (augmentative prefix) and the correlative denmo. It is an adverb of degree meaning so or such.

Yu daydenmo bala.
You are so strong.

Yu hare daydenmo dayo oko.
You have such big eyes.

daydenkwanti, daydennumer, denmo multi

Similarly, the words daydenkwanti and daydennumer may be used to express so much and so many, respectively. Alternatively, the expression denmo multi may be used to express either, as it is synonymous with both daydenkwanti and daydennumer.

moyun

The word moyun is an affixed word composed of the correlative word moy and un (one). It means each (one) and is used when it is necessary to distinguish it from every/all.

Compare the following sentences:

Mi le kari tiga yuxitul cel moyun nini.
I bought three toys for each child.

Mi le kari tiga yuxitul cel moy nini.
I bought three toys for all the children.