Correlatives

Table of Correlatives

interrogative sentences
(which?)
interrogative clauses
(which)
demonstrative
(this)
demonstrative
(that)
unspecified
(some, certain)
universal
(every, each)
negative
(no, none)
alternative
(other, different, else)
identical
(same)
any noun ke...
which... ?
ku...
which...
hin...
this...
den...
that...
ban...
some...
certain...
moy...
every...
each...
nil...
no...
none of...
alo...
another...
a different...
sama...
(the) same...
thing

to - it
keto
what?
which one?
kuto
what
which one
hinto
this (thing),
this one
dento
that (thing),
that one
banto
something
moyto
everything
nilto
nothing
none
aloto
something else
samato
the same thing
animate being

te -
s/he or any life form
kete
who?
which one?
kute
who
which one
hinte
this one
dente
that one
bante
somebody
moyte
everybody
nilte
nobody
alote
somebody else
samate
the same person
possession

-su -
possessive suffix
kesu
whose?
kusu
whose
hinsu
this one’s
densu
that one’s
bansu
somebody’s
moysu
everybody’s
nilsu
nobody’s
alosu
somebody else’s
samasu
the same person's
kind, way

-pul -
adj/adv suffix
kepul
like what?; how?
(in what way?)
kupul
like what; how
(in what way)
hinpul
like this;
this way
denpul
like that;
that way
banpul
some kind of;
in some way
moypul
every kind of;
in every way
nilpul
no kind of;
in no way
alopul
a different kind of;
in a different way
samapul
the same kind of;
in the same way
degree

-mo -
adv suffix
kemo
how?
(to what degree?)
kumo
how
(to what degree)
hinmo
to this degree
yay, yea
denmo
to that degree
as, so, such
banmo
to a certain degree, somewhat
moymo
to every degree
nilmo
to no degree
alomo
to a different degree
samamo
to the same degree
quantity, amount

kwanti -
quantity
amount
kekwanti
how much?
kukwanti
how much
hinkwanti
this much
denkwanti
that much
bankwanti
some amount of
moykwanti
the entire
amount of
nilkwanti
no amount of,
none
alokwanti
a different
amount of
samakwanti
the same
amount of
number

numer -
number
kenumer
how many?
kunumer
how many
hinnumer
this many
dennumer
that many
bannumer
some number of
moynumer
all of the
nilnumer
none of the
alonumer
a different
number of
samanumer
the same
number of
location

loka -
place
keloka
where?
kuloka
where
hinloka
here
denloka
there
banloka
somewhere
moyloka
everywhere
nilloka
nowhere
aloloka
elsewhere
samaloka
in the same place
time

watu -
time
kewatu
when?
kuwatu
when
hinwatu
now
denwatu
then
banwatu
sometime
moywatu
always
nilwatu
never
alowatu
at a different time
samawatu
at the same time
reason
(cause or purpose)


seba -
reason
keseba
why?, how come?
kuseba
why, how come
hinseba
for this reason
denseba
for that reason
banseba
for some reason
moyseba
for every reason
nilseba
for no reason
aloseba
for a different reason
samaseba
for the same reason
way, manner

maner -
way, manner
kemaner
how? (done by
what manner?)
kumaner
how (done by
what manner)
hinmaner
like this, like so,
by this manner
denmaner
like that, like so,
by that manner
banmaner
somehow,
by some manner
moymaner
by every manner
nilmeto
by no manner
alometo
by another manner
samameto
by the same manner
emphatic

he -
any, -ever
he keto
whatever?
he kuto
whatever
he hinto
any of these
whichever
he dento
any of those
whichever
he banto
anything
he moyto
everything
and anything
he nilto
not any,
not a single one
he aloto
any other
he samato
the same exact thing

Determiner Correlatives

The correlatives words ke, ku, hin, den, ban, moy, nil, alo and sama must always be followed by a noun (whether modified with adjectives or not) or by a pronoun. They should never stand alone because by omitting the (pro)noun the correlative can easily be mistaken to refer to the noun/verb that follows it. In the absence of a specified noun, the pronouns te or to mark the end of the noun phrase. See [Noun Phrases](/grammar/word-order-phrase structure#noun_phrase_pronouns).

Compare the following sentences:

Hinto bono nasacu.
This (thing) smells good.

In the sentence above, -to marks the end of the noun phrase.

Hin bono nasacu... memorigi mi cel misu femdoste.
This good smell... reminds me of my girlfriend.

In the sentence above, nasacu marks the end of the noun phrase.

kekwanti, kenumer

Likewise, kekwanti (what quantity of) and kenumer (what number of) must also always be followed by a noun or otherwise te or to when a noun is understood and not specified.

kenumer bono lala - how many good songs
vs
Kenumer te bono lala?
How many (of them) sing well?

Mi le kari dua kilogramo fe risi. Yu le kari kekwanti to?
I bought two kilos of rice. How much did you buy?

Obligatory cel

The preposition cel is obligatory with loka correlatives when movement is involved.

cel keloka - where (to)
cel hinloka - here (hither)
cel denloka - there (thither)
etc.

Questions vs Interrogative Clauses within Declarative Sentences

In many languages, the so-called questions words (who, where, when, etc.) are used not only to pose questions but have multiple other functions. In Globasa, ke words are used only for true wh- questions. As seen under Sentence Structure, questions preserve the word order of the counterpart declarative sentence. Ke words are never used for any other function, including interrogative clauses within declarative sentences or even yes/no questions.

Interrogative clauses are clauses that appear in place of noun phrases and which mean (the answer to) the question "XYZ?" or a variation thereof. They are formed by introducing them with the clause conjunction ki, using the determiner ku instead of ke, and preserving the word order of the clause's counterpart question.

The following pairs of example sentences illustrate: (1) true questions, (2) declarative sentences with interrogative clauses

ke/ku - which; kete/kute - who(m); keto/kuto - what

(1) Kete lubi yu?
"Who loves you?"
Who loves you?

(2) Mi jixi ki kute lubi yu.
"I know this: Who loves you?."
I know who loves you.

(1) Yu lubi kete?
"You love who(m)."
Who(m) do you love?

(2) Mi jixi ki yu lubi kute.
"I know this: You love who(m)?."
I know who(m) you love.

(1) Te wole na yam keto?
"He wants to eat what?"
What does he want to eat?

(2) Mi le wanji ki te wole na yam kuto.
"I forgot this: He wants to eat what?."
I forgot what he wants to eat.

(1) Te le gibe pesa tas ke doste?
"She gave the money to which friend?" Which friend did she give the money to?

(2) Te le no loga ki te le gibe pesa tas ku doste.
"She didn't say this Which friend did she give the money to?."
She didn't say which friend she gave the money to.

kesu/kusu - whose

(1) Hinto is kesu kursi?
"This is whose chair?"
Whose chair is this?

(2) Mi wole na jixi ki hinto is kusu kursi.
"I want to know this: This is whose chair?."
I want to know whose chair this is.

(1) Kesu kitabu per mesa?
"Whose book on the table?"
Whose book is on the table.

(2) Mi jixi ki kusu kitabu per mesa.
"I know this: Whose book is on the table?."
I know whose book is on the table.

kepul/kupul - like what or what kind of (with nouns); how (with verbs)

(1) Yu is kepul?
"You are how?"
How are you?

(2) Te le swal ki yu is kupul.
"She asked this: You are how?."
She asked how you were.

(1) Yu is kepul insan?
"You are what kind of person?"
What kind of person are you?

(2) Mi jixi ki yu is kupul insan.
"I know this: What kind of person are you?."
I know what kind of person you are.

kemo/kumo - how (to what degree)

(1) Te is kemo lawo?
"She is how old?"
How old is she?

(2) Te le loga tas mi ki te kumo lawo.
"She told me this: She is how old?."
She told me how old she is.

(1) Yu is kemo pilodo?
"You are how tired?"
How tired are you?

(2) Mi jixi ki yu kumo pilodo.
I know this: "You are how tired?".
I know how tired you are.

kekwanti/kukwanti - how much; kenumer/kunumer - how many

(1) Yu le kari kekwanti risi?
"You bought how much rice?"
How much rice did you buy?

(2) Mi le oko ki yu le kari kukwanti risi.
"I saw this: You bought how much rice?."
I saw how much rice you bought.

(1) Yu hare kenumer bete?
"You have how many children?"
How many children do you have?

(2) Mi jixiwol ki yu hare kunumer bete.
"I wonder this: You have how many children?."
I wonder how many children you have.

keloka/kuloka - where

(1) Te ogar keloka?
"He works where?"
Where does he work?

(2) Mi jixi ki te ergo kuloka.
"I know this: He works where?."
I know where he works.

kewatu/kuwatu - when

(1) Te xa preata kewatu?
"She will arrive when?"
When will she arrive?

(2) Dento is ki te xa preata kuwatu.
"That is this: She will arrive when?."
That is when he will arrive.

keseba/kuseba - why

(1) Yu le no idi cel parti keseba?
"You didn't go to the party why?"
Why didn't you go to the party?

(2) Mi jixi ki yu le no idi cel parti kuseba.
"I know this: You didn't go to the party why?."
I know why you didn't go to the party.

kemaner/kumaner - how (done how)

(1) Yu le xuli mobil kemaner?
"You fixed the car how?"
How did you fix the car?

(2) Mi jixiwol ki yu le xuli mobil kumaner.
I wonder this: You fixed the car how?."
I wonder how you fixed the car.

Declarative Sentences with Interrogative Phrases

Speakers will sometimes reduce an interrogative clause into a phrase, even to the lone interrogative word. In this case, in the absence of a full clause with a subject and predicate, there is no need for the conjunction ki.

Mi jixi fe ku mesi.
I know in what month.

Te le no loga kuseba.
She didn't say why.

Dento is kuloka.
That is where.

Interrogative phrases with na also do not use the clause conjunction ki.

Mi jixi na idi kuloka.
I know where to go.

Correlative Phrasal Conjunctions

Correlative phrasal conjunctions end in -loka, -watu, -seba and -maner, and use the relative conjunction hu.

Mi ergo denloka hu yu ergo.
I work where you work.

Mi xa preata denwatu hu yam jumbi. or Denwatu hu yam jumbi, mi xa preata.
I will arrive when the meal is ready. or When the meal is ready, I will arrive.

Mi le no idi cel parti denseba hu yu idi.
I didn't go to the party for the reason that you went.

Mi le xuli mobil denmaner hu yu le alim tas mi.
I fixed the car how/like you taught me.

Denmaner hu mi le loga...
Like I said...

Comparative Correlatives

The conjunction kom means as, like and is used with the correlatives ending in -pul, -mo, -kwanti and -numer to make comparisions. In the following pairs of example sentences, the second sentence replaces a specific word or phrase with a correlative.

(1) Mi is hazuni kom yu.
I am sad like you.

(2) Mi is denpul kom yu.
I am like you.

(1) Mi salom yu sodarsim kom misu sodar.
I greet you fraternally as my brother.

(2) Mi salom yu denpul kom misu sodar.
I greet you as my brother.

(1) Mi no abil na lala meli kom yu.
I can't sing beautifully like you.

(2) Mi no abil na lala denpul kom yu.
I can't sing like you.

(1) Sama kom mi, pia te hare tiga bete.
The same as me, she too has three children.

(2) Denpul kom mi, pia te hare tiga bete.
Like me, she too has three children.

(1) Hin baytu daymo dayo kom misu to.
This house is very big like mine.

(2) Hin baytu denmo dayo kom misu to.
This house is as big as mine.

(1) Mi hare tiga bete kom misu gami.
I have three children like my spouse.

(2) Mi hare dennumer bete kom misu gami.
I have as many children as my spouse.

(1) Mi le kari dua kilogramo fe risi kom yu.
I bought two kilos of rice like you.

(2) Mi le kari denkwanti risi kom yu.
I bought as much rice as you.

daydenpul

The word daydenpul is an affixed word composed of day- (augmentative prefix) and the correlative denpul. It translates as what a followed a noun in exclamations such as the following:

Daydenpul dina!
What a day!

daydenmo

The word daydenmo is an affixed word composed of day- (augmentative prefix) and the correlative denmo. It is an adverb of degree meaning so, when followed by an adjective/adverb, or such, when followed by a modified noun.

Yu daydenmo bala.
You are so strong.

Yu hare daydenmo dayo oko.
You have such big eyes.

The word daydenmo is also used much like daydenpul. It means how, when followed by an adjective/adverb, or what a, when followed by a modified noun.

Daydenmo meli!
How beautiful!

Daydenmo meli dina!
What a beautiful day!

daydenkwanti, daydennumer, denmo multi

Similarly, the words daydenkwanti and daydennumer may be used to express so much and so many, respectively. Alternatively, the expression denmo multi may be used to express either, as it is synonymous with both daydenkwanti and daydennumer.

moyun

The word moyun is an affixed word composed of the correlative word moy and un (one). It means each (one) and is used when it is necessary to distinguish it from every/all.

Compare the following sentences:

Mi le kari tiga yuxitul cel moyun nini.
I bought three toys for each child.

Mi le kari tiga yuxitul cel moy nini.
I bought three toys for all the children.