Lesson 6

New words in this lesson:

  • mas - but
  • to - it (objects only)
    • hinto - this (one/thing)
    • dento - that (one/thing)
  • le - past tense particle (-ed)
  • xa - future tense particle (will/shall)
  • in - in, inside of
  • ex - out, outside of
  • ogar - home
  • multi - many, much
  • xosu - few, little (a little bit)
  • xwexi - learn(s)
  • koki - cook(s)
    • kokidom - kitchen
  • banyo - bathe(s), bath
    • banyodom - bathroom
  • parke - park
  • hotel - hotel
  • banko - bank
  • eskol - school

Notes

hinto/dento

Remember that hin and den never stand alone. They must always be followed by a noun or have te or to attached.

  • Dento safe.
    That (thing) is clean.

Noun Phrases

Noun phrases must always end in a noun or pronoun. This is the reason why hin and den can never stand alone. Likewise, when multi and xosu are used in noun phrases they must always be followed by either a noun or a pronoun.

  • Yu hare multi bete mas mi hare xosu te.
    You have many children but I have few (of them).

  • Yu le yam xosu jubin ji mi le yam multi to.
    You ate a little (bit of) cheese and I ate a lot (of it).

Adverbs

Adverbs have the same form as adjectives. They typically precede the verbs they modify but may optionally follow the verb.

  • Uma velosi pawbu. or Uma pawbu velosi.
    The horse runs fast.

If the sentence has a direct object, the adverb may optionally follow it.

  • Matre multi lubi bete. or Matre lubi bete multi.
    The mother loves the child a lot.

Be careful not to place the adverb between the verb and the direct object. A modifying word in that spot would function as an adjective modifying the direct object.

  • Matre lubi multi bete.
    The mother loves many children.

Adverbs may also be moved to the start of the sentence, so long as a comma with a clear pause is utilized to separate the adverb from the rest of the sentence. Without this pause the adverb would be mistaken by an adjective modifying the subject.

  • Velosi, uma pawbu.
    Quickly, the horse runs.

Suffix -dom

The suffix -dom means a place for/with a specific purpose.

Fill in the blanks below:

library: _______________
dining room: _______________
swimming pool: _______________
bedroom: _______________

Past and Future Tenses

The particle le marks the past tense and the particle xa marks the future tense. Verb particles are used at the beginning of a verb phrase, preceding any adverbs as well as no. The word order for verb phrases is as follows: verb particle -- negation -- adverb -- verb.

  • Femixu le kox ore musika.
    The woman happily listened to the music.

  • Manixu le no kox ore musika.
    The man didn't happily listen to the music.

  • Myaw xa velosi glu sui.
    The cat will quickly drink the water.

  • Bwaw xa no velosi glu sui.
    The cat will not drink the water quickly.

Example Sentences

  • Nini le no multi yam.
    The kid didn't eat much.

  • Bwaw yuxi in parke.
    The dog plays in the park.

Reading Practice

Patre ergo in lile banko. Matre ergo in dayo hotel. Bete xwexi in meli eskol.

Bete ji bwaw le yuxi ex ogar. Bwaw no safe. Patre xa banyo bwaw in banyodom. Bwaw xa safe. Matre koki risi ji patato in kokidom. Risi ji patato xa bono. Matre xa yam multi risi ji xosu patato. Bete xa yam xosu risi ji multi patato. Patre xa yam multi risi ji patato.

Lesson Activity

Create your own sentences using the examples above, and examples from previous lessons, as sentence patterns. Tell a story.