Content Words

Nouns, Verbs, Adjectives and Adverbs

Nouns

Globasa's nouns do not distinguish between singular and plural forms.

  • maux - mouse, mice
  • kalamu - pen(s)

Globasa's nouns have neither definite nor indefinite articles.

  • janela - (a) window, (the) window(s)

If it is necessary to emphasize definiteness, hin (this/these) or den (that/those) may be used.

  • hin kitabu - this book, these books, the book(s)
  • den flura - that flower, those flowers, the flower(s)

If it is necessary to emphasize singularity, un (one) may be used.

  • un denta - one tooth, a tooth
  • hin un denta - this (one) tooth, the tooth

If it is necessary to emphasize plurality, plu (multiple) may be used.

  • plu pingo - (multiple) apples
  • den plu pingo - those (multiple) apples, the apples

Gender

In Globasa, nouns denoting people and animals are typically gender-neutral.

  • ixu - adult (man, woman)
  • nini - kid, child (boy, girl)
  • gami - spouse (husband, wife)
  • mumu - ox (bull, cow)

If it is necessary to emphasize gender, the adjectives fem (female) and man (male) may be used as prefixes.

  • femnini - girl; mannini - boy
  • femixu - woman; manixu - man
  • femgami - wife; mangami - husband
  • femmumu - cow; manmumu - bull

Etymology of fem: English (feminine), French (féminin), German (feminin), Spanish (femenina)

Etymology of man: Mandarin (男 “nán”), French (masculin), Spanish (masculino), English (masculine), German (männlich), Hindi (मर्दाना “mardana”), Persian (مردانه “mardane”)

A handful of nouns denoting people do indicate gender.

  • matre or mama - mother or mom
  • patre or papa - father or dad

Note: The gender-neutral word for parent(s) is atre. The gender-neutral word for mom/dad is mapa.

Nouns in Sentence Initial Phrases

Fe is often used in sentence initial phrases with nouns.

  • Fe fato, - In fact, Actually,
  • Fe fini, - Finally,
  • Fe bonxanse, - Luckily, Fortunately,
  • Fe asif, - Regretfully, Unfortunately,
  • Fe onxala, - Hopefully,
  • Fe folo, - Therefore, Consequently, So,
  • Fe misal, - For example,
  • Fe xugwan, - Usually,
  • Fe benji, - In essence, Basically,
  • Fe moy kaso, - In any case, At any rate,
  • Fe alo kaso, - Otherwise,
  • Fe nunya, - At present, Now,
  • Fe leya, - In the past, Previously, Formerly,
  • Fe xaya, - In the future, Later (on),

Apposition

In Globasa, a noun may be followed by another noun without the use of a preposition when the second noun specifies the identity of the first. This is known as apposition.

  • Hotel Kaliforni - Hotel California
  • Estato Florida - the State of Florida
  • Towa Babel - The Tower of Babel
  • Dolo Onxala - Hope Street
  • Myaw Felix - Felix the Cat
  • misu doste Marko - my friend Mark
  • lexi kursi - the word chair

Noun/Verbs

In Globasa, noun/verbs are words that can function as either noun or verb.

  • ergo - work (noun or verb)
  • danse - dance (noun or verb)
  • yam - meal (noun) or eat (verb)
  • lala - song (noun) or sing (verb)

Noun/Verb Comparison

Noun/verb comparison is expressed as follows using the words max (more), min (less, fewer), dennumer (that number of, as many), denkwanti (that quantity, as much), kom (as, than).

With nouns:

  • max... kom... - more... than...
  • min... kom... - fewer... than...

Mi hare max kitabu kom yu.
I have more books than you.

Yu hare min kitabu kom mi.
You have fewer books than I.

  • max te/to kom... - more (of them) than...
  • min te/to kom... - fewer (of them) than...

Mi hare max to kom yu.
I have more (of them) than you.

Yu hare min to kom mi.
You have fewer (of them) than I.

  • max kom - more than
  • min kom - fewer than

Mi hare max kom cen kitabu.
I have more than one hundred books.

Yu hare min kom cen kitabu.
You have fewer than one hundred books.

  • dennumer... kom... - as many... as...

Te hare dennumer kitabu kom mi.
She has as many books as me.

  • dennumer te/to kom... as many (of them) as...

Te hare dennumer to kom mi.
She has as many as me.

  • denkwanti... kom... as much... as...

Yu yam denkwanti risi kom mi.
You eat as much rice as me.

  • denkwanti to kom... as much (of it) as...

Yu yam denkwanti to kom mi.
You eat as much (of it) as me.

With verbs:

  • max... kom.... or max kom... - more than

Myaw max somno kom bwaw.
or: Myaw somno max kom bwaw.
The cat sleeps more than the dog.

  • min... kom.... or min kom... - more than

Bwaw min somno kom myaw.
or: Bwaw somno min kom myaw.
The dog sleeps less than the cat.

  • denkwanti... kom... or denkwanti kom... - as much as

Bebe denkwanti somno kom myaw.
or: Bebe somno denkwanti kom myaw.
The baby sleeps as much as the cat.

To express the more/the less..., the more/the less..., Globasa uses fol max/min ki, max/min (ki).

Fol max ki mi doxo, mi max jixi.
or: Fol max ki mi doxo, max ki mi jixi.
The more I read, the more I know.

The order of these phrases may switch places:

Mi max jixi, fol max ki mi doxo.
or: Max ki mi jixi, fol max ki mi doxo.
I know more, the more I read.

Verb Categories

Verbs are defined in the dictionary as auxiliary, copula, transitive, intransitive, agentive ambitransitive or patientive ambitransitive.

Auxiliary Verbs

Auxiliary verbs are immediately followed by another verb, which may be omitted. There are only three auxiliary verbs in Globasa: abil (can, able to), ingay (should, ought to), musi (must, have to).

Copula Verbs

Copula verbs link the subject to its complement. There are only a handful of copula verbs: is (be), iscu (become), isgi (cause to be), kwasiya (seem).

Transitive Verbs

Transitive verbs take a direct object and rarely omit it: haja (need), bujo (catch, capture), gibe (give).

Intransitive Verbs

Intransitive Verbs never take a direct object: idi (go), konduta (behave), loka (be located).

Agentive Ambitransitive Verbs

Agentive Ambitransitive Verbs are verbs that often omit the direct object: yam (eat), doxo (read), lala (sing), pawbu (run), somno (sleep), haha (laugh).

Mi yam (patato).
I'm eating (potatoes).

Yu doxo (makale).
You're reading (an article).

Te lala (meli lala).
She's singing (a beautiful song).

Imi le pawbu maraton.
We ran (a marathon).

Mi le somno (lungo somno).
I slept (a long sleep).

Yu le haha (sotipul haha).
You laughed (a loud laugh).

Patientive Ambitransitive Verbs

Patientive Ambitransitive Verbs are verbs for which both the subject of the intransitive reading and the direct object of the transitive reading experience the same action/state of the verb. The intransitive reading of these verbs may optionally take -cu and the transitive reading may optionally take -gi.

  • esto(cu) - stop (come to a stop)
    esto(gi) - stop (bring to a stop or cause to stop)

Am esto(cu)!
Stop!

Am esto(gi) mobil!
Stop the car!

  • harka(cu) - move (make a movement)
    harka(gi) - move (cause to move)

Am no harka(cu)!
Don't move!

Mi le harka(gi) yusu kursi.
I moved your chair.

  • guje(cu) - break (get broken)
    guje(gi) - break (cause to break)

Janela le guje(cu).
The window broke.

Mi le guje(gi) janela.
I broke the window.

  • buka(cu) - open (become open)
    buka(gi) - open (make open)

Dwer le buka(cu).
The door opened.

Mi le buka(gi) dwer.
I opened the door.

  • sokutu(cu) - fall
    sokutu(gi) - drop

Kitabu le sokutu(cu).
The book fell.

Mi le sokutu(gi) kitabu.
I dropped the book.

  • resta(cu) - stay, remain
    resta(gi) - leave (behind), keep (cause to stay, remain)

Am resta(cu) in ogar.
Stay home.

Am resta(gi) kamisa in bao.
Leave/keep the shirt in the bag.

Adjective/Adverbs

In Globasa, adjectives and verb-modifying adverbs have identical form.

  • bono - good, well
  • velosi - quick(ly), rapid(ly), fast
  • multi - many, much

Adjective/adverbs precede the noun/verbs they modify.

Hinto is bono yam.
This is a good meal.

Bebe bono yam.
The baby eats well.

Uma velosi pawbu.
The horse runs fast.

Alternatively, adverbs may appear after the verb, but preceded by the direct and indirect objects, if any: Subject - Verb - (Direct and Indirect Objects) - Adverb.

Bebe yam bono.
The baby eats well.

Bwaw glu sui velosi.
The dog drinks the water quickly.

Adverbs may also be moved to the start of the sentence, so long as there is a definite pause with the comma so as to separate the phrase from the rest of the sentence. Without the pause, the adjective/adverb could be mistakenly interpreted as modifying the subject.

Velosi, bwaw glu sui.
Quickly, the dog drinks the water.

Unyum, te le idi cel banko.
First, she went to the bank.

Adjective/Adverbs in Sentence-Initial Phrases

The following are adjective/adverbs commonly used in sentence-initial phrases followed by a clear pause before the rest of the sentence.

  • Ripul, - Again,
  • Bilpul, - Maybe, Perhaps,
  • Maxpul, - Moreover, Furthermore,
  • Pia, - Also,
  • Abruto, - Suddenly,
  • Total, - Absolutely, Totally,
  • Yakin, - Certainly,
  • Ideal, - Ideally,
  • Mimbay, - Obviously, Of course,
  • Mingo, - Clearly, Evidently,
  • Sipul, - Indeed,
  • Fori, - Immediately,
  • Pinpan, - Often, Oftentimes,
  • Sati, - Truly,
  • Umumi, - In general, Generally,
  • Lener, - Recently,
  • Letel, - A long time ago,
  • Xaner, - Soon,
  • Xatel, - In a long time,

Adjective/Adverb Comparison

Adjective/adverb comparison is expressed as follows using the words maxmo (more, -er), minmo (less), denmo (as),kom (as, than).

  • maxmo kimapul kom... - more expensive than...
  • minmo kimapul kom... - less expensive than...
  • denmo kimapul kom... - as expensive as...

To express the most (-est) and the least, Glosaba uses maxim... te/to and minim... te/to. The word of means out of or off (of). Note that the pronouns te/to must immediately follow the adjective since noun phrases must always end in a noun or pronoun. See Noun Phrases.

  • maxim juni te (of misu bete) - the youngest (of my children)
  • minim kimapul to (of yusu mobil) - the least expensive/costly (of your cars)

To express the more/the less..., the more/the less..., Globasa uses fol maxmo/minmo, maxmo/minmo.

  • fol maxmo newe, maxmo bono - the newer, the better

Common Affixes

Noun Suffix -ya

The suffix -ya has a variety of useful functions and is equivalent to several English suffixes: -ity, -ness, -dom, -hood, -ship.

  1. Abstract nouns are derived from adjective/adverbs by adding -ya.
  • real - real (adj)
    realya - reality (noun)

  • bimar - sick, ill (adj)
    bimarya - illness, disease (noun)

  • huru - free (adj)
    huruya - freedom, liberty (noun)

  • solo - alone (adj)
    soloya - solitude (noun)
  1. The suffix -ya is used to derive abstract and noncount nouns from a variety of concrete and count nouns.
  • poema - poem (concrete noun)
  • poemaya - poetry (abstract noun)

The suffix -ya means -hood or -ship when attached to nouns denoting relationships.

  • matre - mother (concrete noun)
    matreya - motherhood (abstract noun)

  • patre - father (concrete noun)
    patreya - fatherhood (abstract noun)

  • doste - friend (concrete noun)
    dosteya - friendship (abstract noun)

In some cases the concrete or count noun is used as verb and the abstract or noncount noun is derived using -ya functions as the counterpart to the verb.

  • imaje - image/picture (concrete noun), imagine/picture (verb)
    imajeya - imagination (abstract noun)

  • magneto - magnet (concrete noun), attract (verb)
    magnetoya - attraction (abstract noun)

  • turi - trip (count noun), travel (verb)
    turiya - tourism (noncount noun)

Likewise, the body parts associated with the five senses denote the related action (verb), while -ya is used to derive the abstract noun.

  • oko - eye (concrete noun), see, look (verb)
    okoya - sight or sense of sight (abstract noun)

  • ore - ear (concrete noun), hear, listen (verb)
    oreya - hearing or sense of hearing (abstract noun)

  • nasa - nose (concrete noun), smell (verb)
    nasaya - smell or sense of smell (abstract noun)

  • xeto - tongue (concrete noun), taste (verb)
    xetoya - taste or sense of taste (abstract noun)

  • pifu - skin (concrete noun), touch (verb)
    pifuya - touch or sense of touch (abstract noun)
  1. Prepositions are turned into noun/verbs using the suffix -ya. See Prepositional Verbs.

  2. The suffix -ya is also used to turn other function words into nouns. See Function Words.

Etymology of -ya: Hindi (सत्य "satya" - truth), Spanish (alegría - joy)

Prefix du-

Globasa uses the prefix du- to express the gerund.

  • dudanse - (the act of) dancing
  • dulala - (the act of) singing

The prefix du- is also used for the continuous/habitual verb aspect. See Verb Forms.

The prefix du- is truncated from dure (duration).
Etymology of dure: English, French, German and Spanish

Noun/Verb Suffix -gi

The suffix -gi may be applied to adjectives, verbs and nouns.

Adjectives

The suffix -gi turns adjectives into transitive verbs.

  • bala - strong
    balagi - strengthen

  • pule - full
    pulegi - fill

  • mor - dead
    morgi - kill

Verbs

The suffix -gi is also used to turn intransitive, transitive or agentive ambitransitive verbs into causative verbs (as seen below), or used optionally in patientive ambitransitive verbs (as seen above, under Verb Categories).

  • haha - laugh
    hahagi - make laugh (cause laughter)

  • yam - eat
    yamgi - feed (cause to eat)

Nouns

The suffix -gi means cause to be(come) when added to nouns.

  • zombi - zombie
    zombigi - zombify

  • korbani - victim
    korbanigi - victimize

The suffix -gi is truncated from gibe (give).
Etymology of gibe: English (give), German (geben, gibt) and Mandarin (给 “gěi”)

Noun/Verb Suffix -cu

The suffix -cu may be applied to adjectives, verbs and nouns.

Adjectives

The suffix -cu (get/become) turns adjectives into intransitive verbs.

  • roso - red
    rosocu - blush/redden (get red)

  • mor - dead
    morcu - die (become dead)

Verbs

The suffix -cu may also be optionally applied to patientive ambitransitive verbs (as seen above, under Verb Categories) although in certain cases -cu is required to make a distinction.

  • gami - spouse (noun); marry, get married (verb)
    gamicu - wedding (noun); get married (verb)

  • side - sit (be seated or cause to sit), seat
    sidecu - sit down (become seated)

Nouns

The suffix -cu means become when added to nouns.

  • zombi - zombie
    zombicu - turn into a zombie

  • ixu - adult
    ixucu - become an adult, come of age

The suffix -cu is truncated from cudu (take, obtain, acquire, gain)
Etymology of cudu: Mandarin (取得 "qǔdé"), Korean (취득 “chwideug”)

Adjective/Adverb Suffix -li

In Globasa, adjective/adverbs are derived from nouns by means of various suffixes. See full list of suffixes under Word Formation. One of the most common is the suffix -li (of, relating to).

  • musika - music
    musikali - musical, musically

  • denta - tooth
    dentali - dental

  • dongo - east
    dongoli - eastern

  • Franse - France
    Franseli - French

The suffix -li is also used for deriving adjective/adverbs out of function words. See Function Words.

Etymology of -li: French (-el, -elle), Spanish (-al), English (-al, -ly), German (-lich), Russian (-ельный “-elni”, -альный “-alni”), Turkish (-li)

Adjective/Adverb Suffix -pul

The suffix -pul means full of or having.

  • jawgu - care, take care
    jawgupul - careful

  • hatari - danger
    hataripul - dangerous

The suffix -pul is truncated from pule (full).
Etymology of pule: English (full), Hindi (पूर्ण “purn”), Russian (полный “poln-”)

Active Adjectives: Suffix -ne

The suffix -ne means in the active process of and is used to derive what are known in Globasa as active adjectives.

Active adjectives are in most cases equivalent to present participles in English (adjectives ending in -ing). However, unlike in English, active adjectives are not used to generate the progressive verb forms (I am sleeping, She is dancing, etc.). Instead, they only function as adjectives.

  • somno - sleep
    somnone meliyen - sleeping beauty

  • sampo - walk
    sampone moryen - walking dead

  • danse - dance
    dansene uma - dancing horse

  • interes - interest
    interesne kitabu - interesting book

  • amusa - amuse, fun
    amusane filme - amusing/fun film

Etymology of -ne: English (-ing), French (-ant), Spanish (-ando), German (-en, -ende), Russian (-ный “-ny”), Turkish (-en, -an)

Sentence-Initial Active Adjectives

Active adjectives that appear sentence initially may alternatively be expressed as prepositional phrases using the infinitive verb form.

Doxone, nini le xorsomno.
Reading, the kid fell asleep.

or

Fe na doxo, nini le xorsomno. Reading, the kid fell asleep.
or
Dur na doxo, nini le xorsomno.
While reading, the kid fell asleep.

This construction is useful particularly when the phrase includes a direct object since, unlike the present participle in English, active adjectives in Globasa cannot function as verbs.

Dur na doxo sesu preferido kitabu, nini le xorsomno.
While reading his favorite book, the kid fell asleep.

Naturally, these phrases may also be expressed as full clauses, as opposed to prepositional phrases.

Dur te le doxo (sesu preferido kitabu), nini xorsomno.
While he read (his favorite book), the kid fell asleep.

Passive Adjectives

Active adjectives may be rendered passive by adding the passive prefix be- to derive what are known in Globasa as passive active adjectives (or passive adjectives for short). There is no exact equivalent in English for passive adjectives, but are best understood as the exact passive form of the present participle in English.

  • belalane melodi - melody that is sung or being sung
  • belubine doste - beloved friend or friend that is loved

Inactive Adjectives: Suffix -do

The suffix -do means in an inactive state of. Words with this suffix are known in Globasa as inactive adjectives and are typically translated as the past participle in English. However, unlike in English, inactive adjectives are not used to generate perfect or passive verb forms (I have worked, It was/got stolen, etc.). Instead, they function only as adjectives.

It is worth noting that, technically speaking, the suffix -do is added to the noun aspect of noun/verbs. For this reason -do may be added to transitive, intransitive or ambitransitive verbs noun/verbs.

With transitive verbs

  • hajado ergo - necessary work (in a state of necessity)
  • bujodo morgiyen - captured murderer (in a state of capture)

With intransitive verbs

  • Uncudo Nasyonlar - United Nations (in a state of union)
  • awcudo fleytor - disappeared airplane (in a state of disappearance)

With ambitransitive verbs

  • gujedo janela - broken window (in a state of breakage)
  • klosido dwer - closed door (in a state of closure)

Etymology of -do: English (-ed), Spanish (-ado, -ido)

Adverb Suffix -mo

Adjective/adverbs that modify other adjective/adverbs, known as adj/adv-modifying adverbs, add the suffix -mo. Compare the following pairs of phrases.

  • perfeto blue oko - perfect (blue eyes) or blue eyes that are perfect
    perfetomo blue oko - (perfectly blue) eyes or eyes that are perfectly blue

  • naturali syahe tofa - natural black hair (not a wig)
    naturalimo syahe tofa - naturally black hair (not dyed)

  • sotikal doxone nini - quiet child reading
    sotikalmo doxone nini - child silently reading