Lesson 8

New words in this lesson:

  • de - of (belonging to)
  • loka - location
    • keloka - where
    • hinloka - here
    • denloka - there
  • fe - at (place or time)
  • per - on
  • bax - under, below, beneath
  • ton - (together) with
  • fe inya - inside
  • fe exya - outside
  • mesa - table
  • bistar - bed
  • kursi - chair
  • drevo - tree
  • jabal - mountain
  • bahari - sea
  • nahir - river


Expressing Possession

Nouns express possession using the preposition de (of). Note that de only denotes possession, while in English the word of has many uses. In subsequent lessons, you will learn other words that translate as of in English.

kitabu de nini - the kid’s book


The preposition ton only means together with. It is never used to express with in the sense of by means of.

keloka, hinloka, denloka

The words keloka, hinloka and denloka also link to the subject using the verb is.

Myaw is keloka?
Where is the cat?

Myaw is denloka.
The cat is there.

Prepositional Phrases with Reference to Location

In order to indicate position without reference to location, prepositions are turned into nouns by adding -ya to form prepositional phrases with fe.

Myaw fe inya somno.
The cat inside is sleeping.

Fe inya, myaw somno.
Inside, the cat is sleeping.

Example Sentences

  • Eskol is keloka?
    "School what-location?"
    Where is the school?

  • Piu is fe exya.
    The bird is outside.

  • Bwaw de polisiyen is dayo.
    The police officer's dog is big.

Reading Practice

Manixu ergo fe bahari. Te is maciyen. Te hare ogar ton femixu. Femixu hare juni bete. Hin ogar no is dayo. Ete no suki to.

Ete is in hin ogar. Manixu ji femixu is fe mesa. Ete glu cay. Bete bono somno per bistar. Ete oko bete.

"Mi wole newe ogar, dayo ogar, har somnodom tas bete, ji somnodom tas imi," femixu loga. "Mi aham, mas ogar xa is keloka?" manixu loga. "Kam yu suki jabal? Dento is bono cel newe ogar," femixu loga. "Si, mi suki. Mas mi wole ergo," manixu loga. "Jabal hare nahir. Maci is in nahir. Yu xa cudu multi maci," femixu loga. "Mas, kam jabal xa hare eskol?" manixu loga.

Bete ore ixu. Te le no somno!

Bete loga, "Mi no wole na idi cel eskol! Mi wole na yuxi per drevo, ex bahari ji ex eskol!"

Lesson Activity

Create your own sentences using the examples above, and examples from previous lessons, as sentence patterns. Tell a story.