Lesson 19

New words in this lesson:

  • watu - time
    • kewatu - when
    • moywatu - always
    • nilwatu - never
  • haji - still
    • no haji - no longer, not anymore
  • uje - already
    • no uje - not yet
  • dur - during
    • durki - while
  • pinpan - often, frequent(ly)
  • nadir - seldom, rare(ly)
  • dina - day
    • nundina - today
    • ledina - yesterday
    • xadina - tomorrow
  • lefe - before, ago
  • xafe - after
  • soba - morning
  • axam - evening
  • noce - night
  • total - entire, whole
  • nyan - year

Notes

nun

The verb particle nun is used to express the present moment. It is typically omitted unless one wishes to emphasize that the activity is currently taking place.

Past, present and future

The verb tense particles (nun, le, xa) may be turned into abstract nouns by adding -ya, which may be used in prepositional phrases with fe.

  • fe nunya - in the present, now
  • fe leya - in the past, previously
  • fe xaya - in the future, afterwards, later

Now and Then

Although fe nunya is the most common way to express now, hinwatu is also used. The expression hinwatu, however, contrasts with denwatu (then, at that time).

nun, le and xa as prefixes

The verb particles nun, le and xa are used as prefixes in a specific and limited number of words, primarily those that appear in this lesson.

lefe and xafe

The prepositions lefe (before) and xafe (after) are composed of the verb tense prefixes le and xa, plus the multi-purpose preposition fe. They can also be used to express ago and in (after some time).

  • Misu gami le irsal cel yu eposta lefe tiga dina.
    My spouse sent you an email three days ago.

  • Yu abil xwexi Globasa xafe un nyan.
    You can learn Globasa in one year.

Days of the Week

The days of the week are expressed as derived words using the international astronomical method with the suffix -din (dina - day).

Sunday - Soladin (Sola - Earth's sun)
Monday - Lunadin (Luna - Earth's moon)
Tuesday - Marihidin (Marihi - Mars)
Wednesday - Bududin (Budu - Mercury)
Thursday - Muxtaridin (Muxtari - Jupiter)
Friday - Zuhuradin (Zuhura - Venus)
Saturday - Xanidin (Xani - Saturn)

-li

As seen in Lesson 11, the suffix -li is used to turn nouns into adjectives with the meaning of or relating to. Similarly, -li is used to create compound phrases where English uses a root word or combines two nouns to create a compound word. In Globasa, it is not possible to join two nouns together to create compounds. The reason behind this rule has to do with the fact that in Globasa nouns and verbs have the same form. Combining two nouns in an attempt to create a compound could result in a confusing ambiguity for the reader or listener.

  • sobali yam - breakfast ("morning meal")
  • axamli yam - dinner ("evening meal")

Example Sentences

  • Yu le turi in Barati kewatu?
    When did you travel to India?

  • Mi xa koki axamli yam durki yu idi cel dukan.
    I will cook dinner while you go to the store.

Reading Practice

Mi nadir koki mas mi xa koki axamli yam xadina. Nundina mi musi na idi cel bazar. Imi haja risi, maciso ji vino. Misu gami loga ki misu yam daymo bono, mas mi fikir ki te haji koki maxmo bono. Dur mi koki, misu gami xa oko filme.

Lesson Activity

Create your own sentences using the examples above, and examples from previous lessons, as sentence patterns. Tell a story.