There are currently no set rules in Globasa for the use of upper-case letters. Globasa speakers are welcome to use upper-case letters at their discretion until the time comes to establish such rules or guidelines.
When spelling words out loud, the names of the letters may be shortened.
|b||/b/||as in boy||baytu house|
|c||/t͡ʃʰ/||as ch in chair||cokolate chocolate|
|d||/d/||as in dip||doste friend|
|f||/f/||as in fun||fasul bean|
|g||/g/||as in good||globa world|
|h||/x/||as ch in Bach||hawa air|
|j||/d͡ʒ/||as in jazz||juni young|
|k||/kʰ/||as in kite||kitabu book|
|l||/l/||as in log||lala sing, song|
|m||/m/||as in map||multi many, much|
|n||/n/||as in nine||neo new|
|p||/pʰ/||as in peace||pingo apple|
|r||/ɾ/||as r in Spanish or Italian||risi rice|
|s||/s/||as in sit||sui water|
|t||/tʰ/||as in time||teatro theater|
|v||/v/||as in vest||visita visit|
|w||/w/||as in win||watu time|
|x||/ʃ/||as sh in shop||xugwan habit|
|y||/j/||as in yes||yuxi play, game|
|z||/z/||as in zen||zebra zebra|
c - never [k] as in cup or [s] as in cent
c, k, p and t - ideally aspirated (although not as strongly as in English) so as to better distinguish them from their voiced counterparts; permissible variant: strong aspiration, as in English
d, t - never like the American English pronunciation of d and t between vowels, as in lady and meter
In American English, d and t tend to be rendered as [ɾ] when they appear between vowels (leader, liter, etc). The phoneme [ɾ], or so-called tap, is virtually identical to the Spanish (and Globasa) r. English speakers with American accents should be careful to always pronounce a true d (the d in done, not in leader) and a true t (the t in talk, not in liter) in Globasa.
g - never [dʒ] as in gym
The velar fricative is pronounced in the same point of articulation as [k], and is akin to a cat's hissing sound. In contrast, the uvular fricative is a more guttural sound pronounced further back in the throat in which uvular vibration is noticeable. Permissible variant: [h], as in hotel.
l - ideally pronounced as a clear or light [l] in any position, rather than as [ɫ], a velarized or so-called dark l, pronounced in English in syllable-final position, as in bell; compare with the French pronunciation of belle
ng - may be pronounced as [ŋ] in syllable-final position (as seen only in proper nouns); elsewhere as [ŋg]
s - always as a voiceless [s]; never [z] as in visit
In English, the s tends to be pronounced as [z] between vowels or in word-final position. In Globasa, s always remains voiceless.
w and y - permissible variants: as unstressed vowels (u and i)
See Spelling Convention below.
x - never [ks] as in taxi
z - always as a single voiced sibilant; never [ts] as in pizza
Depending on one's native language, other consonant variants are also permissible. For example, some Spanish speakers might tend to pronounce h as [χ] rather than [x]. French speakers might tend to pronounce r as [ʁ] rather than [ɾ]. Mandarin speakers might tend to pronounce x as [ʂ] or [ɕ] rather than [ʃ]. These and other such variants are also permissible.
The following table lists all free variation consonant allophones. The first allophone listed for each phoneme is the ideal Globasa pronunciation. Dozens of other complementary distribution allophones (allophones that depend on the phonetic environment) will likely be heard among many speakers, but everybody should make an effort to not deviate too much from the set of allophones listed here.
|c||[t͡ʃʰ ~ ʈ͡ʂʰ ~ t͡ɕʰ ~ [t͡ʃ]|
|f||[f ~ ɸ]|
|h||[x ~ χ ~ ħ ~ h]|
|j||[d͡ʒ ~ ʒ ~ d͡ʑ ~ ɟ͡ʝ]|
|k||[kʰ ~ k ~ q]|
|l||[l ~ ɫ]|
|p||[pʰ ~ p]|
|r||[ɾ ~ r ~ ɹ ~ ɹ̠ ~ ɻ ~ ʁ]|
|t||[tʰ ~ t]|
|v||[v ~ ʋ]|
|w||[w ~ ʋ]|
|x||[ʃ ~ ʂ ~ ɕ]|
|y||[j ~ ʝ]|
Globasa's vowels (a, e, i, o, u) are pronounced as in Spanish, Italian or Esperanto.
|a||/ä/||as a in Thai||basa language|
|e||/e̞/||as in let||bete child (daughter/son)|
|i||/i/||as in ski||idi go|
|o||/o̞/||as in more||oko eye|
|u||/u/||as in flu||mumu cattle (bull/cow)|
In certain cases, primarily in poetry and song lyrics, e in word-initial position (when followed by -s- and another consonant) may be rendered silent and replaced by an apostrophe.
espesyal or 'spesyal
Syllables in Globasa are either stressed or unstressed. In other words, Globasa does not make use of secondary stress.
Monosyllabic words may be stressed or unstressed according to what feels most natural for speakers. If in doubt, the following suggested guidelines may be used:
The following stress rules apply to all polysyllabic words, including function words and derived words.
As stated above, stress rules apply to derived words as well. The derived word kitabudom (kitabu-dom), for example, is pronounced ki-ta-bu-dom, with the stress only on the last vowel, rather than as ki-ta-bu-dom.
Although not ideal, and unlikely to be utilized by English speakers in most cases, an unwritten glottal stop may be optionally inserted between any two vowels, whether within or between words.
Although not ideal, and unlikely to be utilized by English speakers in most cases, any unrounded central vowel such as [ə] may be optionally inserted between any two consonants or in word-final position. As a central vowel, the cardinal [ä] is also allowed as an unwritten epenthesis, although this is the least recommended option since it's more likely to reduce intelligibility.
Double vowels and consonants, whether within words as a result of derivation or between words, are typically pronounced slightly longer or up to twice as long as single ones. As seen above, a permissible alternative is to add a glottal stop between double vowels and a mid central vowel between double consonants.
Although r cannot be lengthened in the same way that other consonants can be, a double r may be lengthened as a trill or alternatively pronounced as a single r. Since the trill is a variant of a single r, it's possible that some speakers will pronounce both r and rr as a trill, while others will pronounce both as a flap/tap and yet others will distinguish a single r as a flap/tap and a double r as a trill. As seen above with any two consecutive consonants, a third option in this case is to add an epenthetic vowel between two flaps/taps.
Note: As a learner of Globasa you may skip the following portion, which is merely a discussion on how Globasa deals with w and y.
As stated above, w and y may be pronounced as vowels. However, since they are technically consonants they are never stressed.
Compare the pronunciation of following proper names:
Spelling Maryo with y rather than i allows the stress to be shifted to a, the second-to-last vowel letter. With the stress on the appropriate vowel, it makes no difference in Globasa whether Maryo is pronounced as two syllables, with a consonantal y (ma-ryo), or alternatively, as three syllables, with y pronounced as an unstressed i (ma-ri-o).
Globasa does not have true diphthongs. However, the following vowel plus approximant (consonant) combinations are allowed: aw, ew, ow, ay, ey, oy. These combinations may be pronounced as diphthongs even though -w and -y technically represent coda consonants, rather than nucleus glides. We know this because syllables (in ordinary words) may not end in -w/-y plus another consonant. If that were the case, -w/-y could be considered part of the nucleus. Instead, -w/-y take the slot of the sole syllable-final consonant allowed. It is also acceptable, as a permissible alternative, for -w and -y to be pronounced as independent, unstressed vowels.
The following spelling convention applies only to root words and not to derived words. Next to other vowels, Globasa uses i and u only if these are stressed or if y and w are not permitted by phonotactic rules. In all other cases, Globasa uses y and w instead of i and u.
In the following root words, i and u are stressed:
In the following root words, phonotactic rules only allow i and u:
In the following root words, y and w, which may optionally be pronounced as vowels, are conventionally used:
pyano (piano), pronounced pya-no ['pja.no] or pi-a-no [pi.'a.no]
cyan (cyan), pronounced cyan [t͡ʃjan] or ci-an [t͡ʃi.'an]
swini (pig, hog), pronounced swi-ni ['swi.ni] or su-i-ni [su.'i.ni]
trawma (trauma), pronounced traw-ma ['traw.ma] or tra-u-ma ['tra.u.ma]
Note: As a learner of Globasa you may skip this last portion on phonotactics, as this is merely a description of Globasa's syllable structure.
Globasa has two sets of phonotactics rules, one for ordinary words (this section) and one for proper nouns (see next section). Phonotactics rules for culture-specific words combine both sets of rules (see last section).
The following rules apply to ordinary words.
Syllables consist of: (onset)-nucleus-(coda).
The syllable structure in Globasa's ordinary words is (C)(C)V(C).
Syllables may or may not have an onset. In Globasa, the onset consists of any single consonant, or any of the following Cl/Cr and Cw/Cy clusters:
bl-, fl-, gl-, kl-, pl-, vl-
br-, dr-, fr-, gr-, kr-, pr-, tr-, vr-
bw-, cw-, dw-, fw-, gw-, hw-, jw-, kw-, lw-, mw-, nw-, pw-, rw-, sw-, tw-, vw-, xw-, zw-
by-, cy-, dy-, fy-, gy-, hy-, jy-, ky-, ly-, my-, ny-, py-, ry-, sy-, ty-, vy-, xy-, zy-
All syllables have a nucleus. In Globasa, the nucleus consists of any single vowel: a, e, i, o, u.
Syllables may or may not have a coda. In Globasa, the coda of ordinary words consists of any single consonant. However, the following caveats apply:
Word-final position: Ordinary words in Globasa only allow the following consonants in word-final position: -f, -l, -m, -n, -r, -s, -w, -x, -y.
Coda-onset voicing: Coda-onset consonant clusters may or may not agree with regards to voicing: tekno (technology) vs magneto (magnet), epilepsi (epilepsy) vs absorbi (absorb), etc.
Coda-onset stops: Consonant clusters consisting of two stops (-kt-, -pt-, etc.) are not allowed in ordinary words. Instead, ordinary words follow the Italian and Portuguese model which omits the first consonant. In other words, if a syllable begins with a stop, the previous syllable may not have a coda stop: astrato (abstract), ativo (active), otima (optimal), etc.
Nucleus-coda: When w or y are in the coda, neither i nor u is allowed in the nucleus. As a result, the following nucleus-coda combinations with -w and -y are not allowed: -iy, -iw, -uy, -uw. All other nucleus-coda combinations with -w and -y are allowed: -aw, -ew, -ow, -ay, -ey, -oy.
Nucleus-onset: The nucleus-onset combinations iy and uw are not allowed in ordinary words. For example, syahe (black) rather than siyahe.
Onset-nucleus: The onset-nucleus combinations wu and yi are also not allowed in ordinary words.
Proper nouns have more lax phonotactic rules.
The syllable structure in Globasa's proper nouns is as follows: (C)(C)V(C)(C)
See phonotactic rules for ordinary words above.
See phonotactic rules for ordinary words above.
The coda for proper nouns may end in any consonant: Madrid (Madrid), etc. They may also consist of up to two consonants, including in word-final position: Polska (Poland), Budapest (Budapest), etc. Coda-onset double stops are allowed in proper nouns: vodka (vodka), futbol (soccer, football), etc. However, double stops that differ only in voicing are not allowed and must either be reduced to one consonant or add an epenthetic vowel.
The nucleus-coda caveat for ordinary words also applies to proper nouns. When w or y are in the coda, neither i nor u is allowed in the nucleus. As a result, the following nucleus-coda combinations with -w and -y are not allowed: -iy, -iw, -uy, -uw. All other nucleus-coda combinations with -w and -y are allowed: -aw, -ew, -ow, -ay, -ey, -oy.
However, unlike ordinary words, proper nouns allow the nucleus-onset combinations iy and uw (Kuweyti - Kuwait, etc.) and the onset-nucleus combinations wu and yi (Wuhan - Wuhan, etc.).
Phonotactics for culture-specific words follow the rules for ordinary words in word-final position and the rules for proper nouns elsewhere: teriyaki (teriyaki), koktel (cocktail), bakugamon (backgammon), blakjaku (blackjack), jazu (jazz), etc.
Note: The consonant cluster -ng in word-final position, including as seen in Pinyin, adds an epenthetic vowel, rather than being reduced to -n as seen in ordinary words: yinyangu (yinyang).