(other, different, else)
to - it
the same thing
oto - they
none of them
some other things
the same things
s/he or any life form
the same one
|plural animate being
some of them
none of them
some other ones
the same ones
the same person's
like what; how
(in what way)
some kind of;
in some way
every kind of;
in every way
no kind of;
in no way
a different kind of;
in a different way
the same kind of;
in the same way
(to what degree)
to this degree
to that degree
as, so, such
to a certain degree, somewhat
to every degree
to no degree
to a different degree
to the same degree
some amount of
no amount of,
some number of
all of the
none of the
in the same place
at a different time
at the same time
(cause or purpose)
why, how come
for this reason
for that reason
for some reason
for every reason
for no reason
for a different reason
for the same reason
how (done by
like this, like so,
by this manner
like that, like so,
by that manner
by some manner
by every manner
by no manner
by another manner
by the same manner
any of these
any of those
not a single one
the same exact thing
The correlatives words ke, ku, hin, den, ban, moy, nil, alo and sama must always be followed by a noun (whether modified with adjectives or not) or by a pronoun. They should never stand alone because by omitting the (pro)noun the correlative can easily be mistaken to refer to the noun/verb that follows it. In the absence of a specified noun, the pronouns te or to mark the end of the noun phrase. See Noun Phrases.
Compare the following sentences:
Hinto bon nasacu.
This (thing) smells good.
In the sentence above, -to marks the end of the noun phrase.
Hin bon nasacu... memorigi mi cel misu femdoste.
This good smell... reminds me of my girlfriend.
In the sentence above, nasacu marks the end of the noun phrase.
Likewise, kekwanti (what quantity of) and kenumer (what number of) must also always be followed by a noun or otherwise te or to when a noun is understood and not specified.
kenumer bon lala - how many good songs
Kenumer te bon lala?
How many (of them) sing well?
Mi le kari dua kilogramo fe risi. Yu le kari kekwanti to?
I bought two kilos of rice. How much did you buy?
The preposition cel is obligatory with loka correlatives when movement is involved.
cel keloka - where (to)
cel hinloka - here (hither)
cel denloka - there (thither)
Interrogative clauses within declarative sentences are clauses that appear in place of noun phrases and which mean the answer to the question "XYZ?" or a variation thereof. They are formed by introducing them with the clause conjunction ku, using the same determiner (ke) seen in true questions, and preserving the word order of the clause's counterpart question.
The following pairs of example sentences illustrate: (1) true questions, (2) declarative sentences with interrogative clauses
(1) Kete lubi yu?
"Who loves you?"
Who loves you?
(2) Mi jixi ku kete lubi yu.
"I know this: Who loves you?."
I know who loves you.
(1) Yu lubi kete?
"You love who(m)."
Who(m) do you love?
(2) Mi jixi ku yu lubi kete.
"I know this: You love who(m)?."
I know who(m) you love.
(1) Te vole na yam keto?
"He wants to eat what?"
What does he want to eat?
(2) Mi le wanji ku te vole na yam keto.
"I forgot this: He wants to eat what?."
I forgot what he wants to eat.
(1) Te le gibe pesa tas ke doste?
"She gave the money to which friend?" Which friend did she give the money to?
(2) Te le no loga ku te le gibe pesa tas ke doste.
"She didn't say this Which friend did she give the money to?."
She didn't say which friend she gave the money to.
(1) Hinto sen kesu kursi?
"This is whose chair?"
Whose chair is this?
(2) Mi vole na jixi ku hinto sen kesu kursi.
"I want to know this: This is whose chair?."
I want to know whose chair this is.
(1) Kesu kitabu sen per mesa?
"Whose book on the table?"
Whose book is on the table.
(2) Mi jixi ku kesu kitabu sen per mesa.
"I know this: Whose book is on the table?."
I know whose book is on the table.
(1) Yu sen kepul?
"You are how?"
How are you?
(2) Te le swal ku yu sen kepul.
"She asked this: You are how?."
She asked how you were.
(1) Yu sen kepul insan?
"You are what kind of person?"
What kind of person are you?
(2) Mi jixi ku yu sen kepul insan.
"I know this: What kind of person are you?."
I know what kind of person you are.
(1) Te sen kemo lao?
"She is how old?"
How old is she?
(2) Te le loga tas mi ku te sen kemo lao.
"She told me this: She is how old?."
She told me how old she is.
(1) Yu sen kemo pilodo?
"You are how tired?"
How tired are you?
(2) Mi jixi ku yu sen kemo pilodo.
I know this: "You are how tired?".
I know how tired you are.
(1) Yu le kari kekwanti risi?
"You bought how much rice?"
How much rice did you buy?
(2) Mi le oko ku yu le kari kekwanti risi.
"I saw this: You bought how much rice?."
I saw how much rice you bought.
(1) Yu hare kenumer bete?
"You have how many children?"
How many children do you have?
(2) Mi jixipel ku yu hare kenumer bete.
"I wonder this: You have how many children?."
I wonder how many children you have.
(1) Te ogar keloka?
"He works where?"
Where does he work?
(2) Mi jixi ku te ergo keloka.
"I know this: He works where?."
I know where he works.
(1) Te xa preata kewatu?
"She will arrive when?"
When will she arrive?
(2) Dento sen ku te xa preata kewatu.
"That is this: She will arrive when?."
That is when she will arrive.
(1) Yu le no idi cel parti keseba?
"You didn't go to the party why?"
Why didn't you go to the party?
(2) Mi jixi ku yu le no idi cel parti keseba.
"I know this: You didn't go to the party why?."
I know why you didn't go to the party.
(1) Yu le xuli mobil kemaner?
"You fixed the car how?"
How did you fix the car?
(2) Mi jixipel ku yu le xuli mobil kemaner.
I wonder this: You fixed the car how?."
I wonder how you fixed the car.
Speakers will sometimes reduce an interrogative clause into a phrase, even to the lone interrogative word. The conjunction ku is still used in the absence of a full clause.
Mi jixi ku fe ke mesi.
I know in what month.
Te le no loga ku keseba.
She didn't say why.
Dento sen ku keloka.
That is where.
Mi jixi ku na idi keloka.
I know where to go.
Correlative phrasal conjunctions end in -loka, -watu, -seba and -maner, and use the relative conjunction hu.
Mi ergo denloka hu yu ergo.
I work where you work.
Mi xa preata denwatu hu yamsen jumbi. or Denwatu hu yam sen jumbi, mi xa preata.
I will arrive when the meal is ready. or When the meal is ready, I will arrive.
Mi le no idi cel parti denseba hu yu idi.
I didn't go to the party for the reason that you went.
Mi le xuli mobil denmaner hu yu le alim tas mi.
I fixed the car how/like you taught me.
Denmaner hu mi le loga...
Like I said...
The conjunction kom means as, like and is used with the correlatives ending in -pul, -mo, -kwanti and -numer to make comparisions. In the following pairs of example sentences, the second sentence replaces a specific word or phrase with a correlative.
(1) Mi sen hazuni kom yu.
I am sad like you.
(2) Mi sen denpul kom yu.
I am like you.
(1) Mi salom yu sodarsim kom misu sodar.
I greet you fraternally as my brother.
(2) Mi salom yu denpul kom misu sodar.
I greet you as my brother.
(1) Mi no abil na lala meli kom yu.
I can't sing beautifully like you.
(2) Mi no abil na lala denpul kom yu.
I can't sing like you.
(1) Sama kom mi, pia te hare tiga bete.
The same as me, she too has three children.
(2) Denpul kom mi, pia te hare tiga bete.
Like me, she too has three children.
(1) Hin baytu sen daymo day kom misu to.
This house is very big like mine.
(2) Hin baytu sen denmo day kom misu to.
This house is as big as mine.
(1) Mi hare tiga bete kom misu gami.
I have three children like my spouse.
(2) Mi hare dennumer bete kom misu gami.
I have as many children as my spouse.
(1) Mi le kari dua kilogramo fe risi kom yu.
I bought two kilos of rice like you.
(2) Mi le kari denkwanti risi kom yu.
I bought as much rice as you.
The word daydenpul is an affixed word composed of day- (augmentative prefix) and the correlative denpul. It translates as what a followed a noun in exclamations such as the following:
What a day!
The word daydenmo is an affixed word composed of day- (augmentative prefix) and the correlative denmo. It is an adverb of degree meaning so, when followed by an adjective/adverb, or such, when followed by a modified noun.
Yu daydenmo bala.
You are so strong.
Yu hare daydenmo day oko.
You have such big eyes.
The word daydenmo is also used much like daydenpul. It means how, when followed by an adjective/adverb, or what a, when followed by a modified noun.
Daydenmo meli din!
What a beautiful day!
Similarly, the words daydenkwanti and daydennumer may be used to express so much and so many, respectively. Alternatively, the expression denmo multi may be used to express either, as it is synonymous with both daydenkwanti and daydennumer.
The word moyun is an affixed word composed of the correlative word moy and un (one). It means each (one) and is used when it is necessary to distinguish it from every/all.
Compare the following sentences:
Mi le kari tiga yuxitul cel moyun nini.
I bought three toys for each child.
Mi le kari tiga yuxitul cel moy nini.
I bought three toys for all the children.